Posts with the tag: speckle
In the last few years, several papers have looked at how it might be possible to use a multimode fibre as an ultra-narrow endoscope (see this post and this post for a bit of background). The most common approach is to use a spatial light modulator to shape the wavefront entering the fibre. If this is done in precisely the right way, interference between light coupled into the different modes of the fibre will result in a focused spot at the far end. By adjusting the input wavefront it’s then possible to scan the spot in two dimensions, allowing point-by-point imaging. Of course, we need to know what wavefronts to use, making it necessary to perform a calibration which requires access to the far end of the fibre. Unfortunately, this calibration is highly dependent on the configuration of the fibre – if the fibre is bent then the calibration changes. This means the technique is only applicable to rigid probes, greatly limiting the scope of potential applications. Now, in a paper published in Nature Photonics, Tomáš Čižmár and colleagues from the University of Dundee have suggested a possible solution to this problem.
Optical imaging into thick tissue is generally limited to a penetration depth of only a few millimetres. Beyond this depth, almost every photon is scattered multiple times before reaching the detector, meaning that we no longer have much of an idea where it originated from. It’s possible to sidestep this limit if we can somehow differentiate photons that have come from a single point in the sample (for example by using a guide star or ultrasound to modulate the optical signal), and if we measure the wavefront that emerges from the sample. Then, using a technique called optical phase conjugation, a reversed wavefront can be sent back into the sample. Since this wavefront will undergo the opposite series of scattering events to the outcoming beam, it will be focused back to the original point. This ‘time-reversal’ technique can then allow us to image (by scanning the beam and collecting all the returning light or fluorescence) or to deliver various kinds of laser-therapy. However, the difficulty is that the scattering depends on the positions of all the scattering particles in the tissue; if there is movement then wavefront measurement becomes invalid. An international group of researchers have recently shown that the time-constant of the optical phase conjugation is linked to another property of scattering media – speckle correlation. The paper reports measurements of these time constants, giving an indication of how often the wavefront measurement would be needed.
A research team from the University of Twente has found a way to obtain high resolution images of a fluorescent object through a strongly scattering medium. This has been a goal of bioimaging scientists for some time, as it would allow us to use visible light to image much deeper into tissue. Various methods have been suggested, but they generally need some kind of ‘guide-star’ behind the scattering layer. The new approach uses the ‘memory effect’ of speckle to avoid the need for any calibration or guide-star, potentially making it much more applicable to real situations.